A closed-loop control algorithm for the reduction of turbulent flow separation over NACA 0015 airfoil equipped with leading-edge synthetic jet actuators (SJAs) is presented. A system identification approach based on Nonlinear Auto-Regressive Moving Average with eXogenous inputs (NARMAX) technique was used to predict nonlinear dynamics of the fluid flow and for the design of the controller system. Numerical simulations based on URANS equations are performed at Reynolds number of 106 for various airfoil incidences with and without closed-loop control. The NARMAX model for flow over an airfoil is based on the static pressure data, and the synthetic jet actuator is developed using an incompressible flow model. The corresponding NARMAX identification model developed for the pressure data is nonlinear; therefore, the describing function technique is used to linearize the system within its frequency range. Low-pass filtering is used to obtain quasi-linear state values, which assist in the application of linear control techniques. The reference signal signifies the condition of a fully re-attached flow, and it is determined based on the linearization of the original signal during open-loop control. The controller design follows the standard proportional-integral (PI) technique for the single-input single-output system. The resulting closed-loop response tracks the reference value and leads to significant improvements in the transient response over the open-loop system. The NARMAX controller enhances the lift coefficient from 0.787 for the uncontrolled case to 1.315 for the controlled case with an increase of 67.1%.
Obeid, S.; Ahmadi, G.; & Jha, R. (2020). NARMAX Identification Based Closed-Loop Control of Flow Separation over NACA 0015 Airfoil. Fluids 2020, 5, 100.
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