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Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering




Water is often the most mispriced and misused component in domestic, industrial and agricultural sectors. The rise in world population and industrialization in developing nations has tremendously increased the demand for water and has resulted in the generation of wastewater which is contaminated with dangerous pollutants and unknown contaminants. Furthermore, if the wastewater is not treated properly the toxic pollutants will leach back into the ground ultimately contaminating the groundwater resources. Thus, wastewater treatment, reuse, and safe disposal have become crucial for sustainable existence. In this review, the different aspects involved in designing efficient and sustainable wastewater treatment systems such as wastewater characterization, stage-wise treatment approach, technology features, modeling methodologies, cost evaluations, and environmental impact assessment are presented and future need for information exchange, interdisciplinary collaborations and convergent research are emphasized.


This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY).

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.