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Cancers (Basel)




Inadequate oxygen supply, or hypoxia, is characteristic of the tumor microenvironment and correlates with poor prognosis and therapeutic resistance. Hypoxia leads to the activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) signaling pathway and stabilization of the HIF-α subunit, driving tumor progression. The homologous alpha subunits, HIF-1α and HIF-2α, are responsible for mediating the transcription of a multitude of critical proteins that control proliferation, angiogenic signaling, metastasis, and other oncogenic factors, both differentially and sequentially regulating the hypoxic response. Post-translational modifications of HIF play a central role in its behavior as a mediator of transcription, as well as the temporal transition from HIF-1α to HIF-2α that occurs in response to chronic hypoxia. While it is evident that HIF-α is highly dynamic, HIF-2α remains vastly under-considered. HIF-2α can intensify the behaviors of the most aggressive tumors by adapting the cell to oxidative stress, thereby promoting metastasis, tissue remodeling, angiogenesis, and upregulating cancer stem cell factors. The structure, function, hypoxic response, spatiotemporal dynamics, and roles in the progression and persistence of cancer of this HIF-2α molecule and its


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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.