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Eyes are one of the main critical organs of the body that provide our brain with the most information about the surrounding environment. Disturbance in the activity of this informational organ, resulting from different ocular diseases, could affect the quality of life, so finding appropriate methods for treating ocular disease has attracted lots of attention. This is especially due to the ineffectiveness of the conventional therapeutic method to deliver drugs into the interior parts of the eye, and the also presence of barriers such as tear film, blood-ocular, and blood-retina barriers. Recently, some novel techniques, such as different types of contact lenses, micro and nanoneedles and in situ gels, have been introduced which can overcome the previously mentioned barriers. These novel techniques could enhance the bioavailability of therapeutic components inside the eyes, deliver them to the posterior side of the eyes, release them in a controlled manner, and reduce the side effects of previous methods (such as eye drops). Accordingly, this review paper aims to summarize some of the evidence on the effectiveness of these new techniques for treating ocular disease, their preclinical and clinical progression, current limitations, and future perspectives. © 2023 by the authors.


© 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.