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Roadway departure (RwD) crashes are significant safety concerns, especially at horizontal curves. The design of these curves plays a crucial role in mitigating RwD crashes. Thus, a thorough understanding of the interaction between driver behavior, vehicle automation, and geometric design is vital. Substantive safety, which emphasizes the inherent safety in a road's design and function, serves as the foundation of our approach. Building on this, the study employs a safe system approach to investigate the performance of horizontal curves under both non-automated and partially automated conditions, using a reliability-based analysis focusing on Stopping Sight Distance as the primary driver demand. Factors including Perception-Brake Time and Take-Over Time for automated vehicles are examined. The analysis covers horizontal curves, characterized by their geometric design and crash data. Our findings highlight a shift in the performance of horizontal curves under automation, emphasizing the need to consider automation in roadway design within the safe system approach. This study demonstrates how a reliability-based analysis can guide designers in making informed decisions regarding the geometric design of horizontal curves to reduce RwD crashes. To enhance transportation safety in the era of increasing automation, ongoing exploration of the relationships between driver behavior, automation, and road design is indispensable.


© 2024 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.