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The growing integration of renewable energy sources, especially offshore wind (OSW), is introducing frequency stability challenges to electric power grids. This paper presents a novel hybrid deloading control strategy that enables modular multilevel converter (MMC)-based wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) to actively contribute to grid frequency regulation. This research investigates a permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG)-based direct-drive configuration, sourced from the International Energy Agency’s (IEA’s) 15 MW reference turbine model. Specifically, phase-locked loop (PLL)-free grid-forming (GFM) control is employed via the grid-side converter (GSC), and DC-link voltage control is realized through the machine-side converter (MSC), both of which boost the energy support for the integrated AC grid’s frequency stability. This control strategy combines the benefits of over-speeding and pitch control modes, facilitating smooth transitions between different modes based on real-time wind speed measurements. In addition, the practical challenges of MMCs, such as circulating currents and capacitor voltage imbalances, are addressed. Numerical simulations under varying wind speeds and loading conditions validate the enhanced frequency regulation capability of the proposed approach.


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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.