Date Approved


Embargo Period


Document Type


Degree Name

M.A. in Subject Matter Teaching: Music


Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Math Education


College of Education


Levinowitz, Lili M.


Music--Instruction and study; Second grade (Education)


Elementary Education and Teaching


The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of male falsetto and non-falsetto vocal stimuli on the pitch-matching accuracy of second grade students. The investigator also investigated the following: (1) would there be a difference in pitch-matching accuracy to the two vocal stimuli based upon gender; and (2) would there be a difference in the pitch-matching accuracy of students receiving vocal modeling presented in non-falsetto.

The sample for this study included 90 students in four second-grade general music classes.

During the 12 week treatment period, students in the control and experimental groups received the same music instruction; however, the vocal stimuli for these two groups differed.

At the conclusion of the 12 week treatment period, the students' individual performances were audio taped and judged by two independent music teachers.

A Pearson correlation was calculated to determine the respective interjudge reliabilities. Two two-way ANCOVA (treatment x gender) for each rote song and melodic pattern with the pretest score held constant, were calculated on the respective data sets.

The researcher found no difference in pitch-matching accuracy based upon gender; however, a significant difference was found in favor of falsetto vocal modeling.