Date Approved


Embargo Period


Document Type


Degree Name

M.S. in Teaching


Interdisciplinary and Inclusive Education


College of Education


Robinson, Randall


Color; Fifth grade (Education); Mathematics--Study and teaching (Elementary)


Elementary Education and Teaching


The purpose of this study was to determine if fifth grade students who were exposed to colorful symbols and numbers during mathematics instruction would have significantly higher achievement than those students who were taught without the use of colorful symbols and numbers. The sample used in this investigation consisted of two heterogeneous fifth grade mathematics classes. Students in both groups were given pretests on the multiplication and division of fractions. After the pre-test the subjects that comprised the experimental group received a three week treatment. The subjects that comprised the control group were taught the same lessons, yet not exposed to colorful symbols and numbers during this instruction. Post-test were then given to the experimental group and the control group. The t-test for independent samples was used to find any statistical significance between pre-test and post-test scores. At α =. 05, it was found that the null hypothesis used in the research could not be rejected. There was no significant difference in achievement between the students exposed to the use of color as a visual aid and those who were not. Many limitations could have hindered the resultant data. Future research of the effectiveness of color as a visual aid in mathematics instruction is recommended.