Date Approved


Embargo Period


Document Type


Degree Name

M.S. in Teaching


Interdisciplinary and Inclusive Education


College of Education


Robinson, Randall


Fourth grade (Education); Grading and marking (Students); Self-esteem in children


Elementary Education and Teaching


The purpose of this study was to determine the effect on fourth grade students' academic self-esteem when marking their work in red ink versus blue or black ink. It was hypothesized that there would not be a significant difference in the academic self-esteem of fourth grade students whose work was marked in red ink, compared to their work that was marked in blue or black ink.

The study was a quasi-experimental design, examining students in a fourth grade classroom. Nineteen students participated in the study. Prior to the pretest, student work had been marked in blue or black ink for a period of six months. The students were pretested using a Self-Esteem Inventory Test created by Stanley Coopersmith. After the pretest was administered, students' work was marked in red ink for a period of four weeks. A posttest was given after the four-week period, the same Self-Esteem Inventory Test by Stanley Coopersmith was used. A t-test was administered to determine the significance of the mean of the pretest and posttests scores for the fourth grade class where alpha = 0.05 (alpha value). The t-test revealed no significant difference between the mean pretest and posttest scores of the fourth grade class.