M.S. in Teaching
Interdisciplinary and Inclusive Education
College of Education
Fourth grade (Education); Grading and marking (Students); Self-esteem in children
Elementary Education and Teaching
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect on fourth grade students' academic self-esteem when marking their work in red ink versus blue or black ink. It was hypothesized that there would not be a significant difference in the academic self-esteem of fourth grade students whose work was marked in red ink, compared to their work that was marked in blue or black ink.
The study was a quasi-experimental design, examining students in a fourth grade classroom. Nineteen students participated in the study. Prior to the pretest, student work had been marked in blue or black ink for a period of six months. The students were pretested using a Self-Esteem Inventory Test created by Stanley Coopersmith. After the pretest was administered, students' work was marked in red ink for a period of four weeks. A posttest was given after the four-week period, the same Self-Esteem Inventory Test by Stanley Coopersmith was used. A t-test was administered to determine the significance of the mean of the pretest and posttests scores for the fourth grade class where alpha = 0.05 (alpha value). The t-test revealed no significant difference between the mean pretest and posttest scores of the fourth grade class.
Walton, Jennifer L., "The effect of grading the work of fourth grade students in red ink and their academic self-esteem" (2001). Theses and Dissertations. 1614.