Date Approved


Embargo Period


Document Type


Degree Name

MA Reading Education


Language, Literacy, and Sociocultural Education


College of Education

First Advisor

Lee, Valarie G.

Second Advisor

Madden, Marjorie

Third Advisor

Browne, Susan


Reading instruction, fluency


Oral reading; Reading (Primary)


Language and Literacy Education


The study investigated the effects of integrating explicit fluency instruction in the dimensions of: accuracy, rate, expression, and punctuation. Eight elementary students in second, third and fifth grades who received Response to Intervention services for reading and each group met four times a week for forty-five minutes participated. The district used the STAR evaluation system to establish the groups. After the lessons, participants recorded a reading of their instructional level text and completed a rubric to score their performance in each of the four dimensions: punctuation, expression, rate and accuracy. Later, I listened to the same recording and scored each student using the same rubric. The research in this study was qualitative and collected from observational notes, fluency rubrics, teacher journal entries, and audio recordings. This data served as the basis for the qualitative research, analysis determined a positive impact on the students' use of the dimensions as well as their self-efficacy. The study indicated teaching students, specific dimensions of fluency of punctuation, expression, rate, and accuracy, improved the fluency for students reading below grade level.