Date Approved


Embargo Period


Document Type


Degree Name

M.A. Special Education


Interdisciplinary and Inclusive Education


College of Education


Accardo, Amy

Committee Member 1

Kuder, Sydney J.

Committee Member 2

Shuff, Midge


active response techniques, mini whiteboards, resource classroom, response cards, response strategy, whole class response


Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; Learning disabled teenagers--Education


Language and Literacy Education | Special Education and Teaching


The purpose of this study was to: (a) examine the effectiveness of mini whiteboards in increasing engagement, (b) examine the effectiveness of mini whiteboards in increasing academic achievement, and (c) determine if students in a tenth grade English/Language Arts resource center classroom are satisfied with the use of mini whiteboards. The research was conducted using an ABAB single-subject design methodology. Student achievement was evaluated through weekly assessments, while daily engagement was evaluated using interval recording in 5-minute increments. Results suggest that the use of mini whiteboards may help increase the engagement and academic achievement of students in a tenth grade ELA resource center classroom. Mini whiteboards were found to increase the weekly mean engagement score for 7 out of 10 students, and the weekly academic achievement score for 8 out of 10 students. Results also show that most students felt comfortable using the mini whiteboards and some felt that it helped them academically. Implications for educating students in a resource center setting include the recommendation to utilize active responding techniques such as mini whiteboards in the classroom.