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Genes (Basel)




Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive brain cancer with a median survival time of 14.6 months after diagnosis. GBM cells have altered metabolism and exhibit the Warburg effect, preferentially producing lactate under aerobic conditions. After standard-of-care treatment for GBM, there is an almost 100% recurrence rate. Hypoxia-adapted, treatment-resistant GBM stem-like cells are thought to drive this high recurrence rate. We used human T98G GBM cells as a model to identify differential gene expression induced by hypoxia and to search for potential therapeutic targets of hypoxia adapted GBM cells. RNA sequencing (RNAseq) and bioinformatics were used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and cellular pathways affected by hypoxia. We also examined expression of lactate dehydrogenase (


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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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