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International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health




The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the differences in areal bone mineral density (aBMD) based on alcohol consumption behaviors, bone-loading history as assessed by a bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (BPAQ), and the body mass index (BMI). College-aged female students (N = 112) were recruited from the universities in Seoul and Gyeonggi province, South Korea. The aBMD of the lumbar spine and non-dominant side of the proximal femur (total hip, TH; femoral neck, FN; femoral trochanter, FT) were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Alcohol consumption was determined by the frequency and amount of alcohol intake during the past 12 months using a self-reported questionnaire. The X-scan plus II was used to measure height (cm), body mass (kg), fat-free mass (FFM, kg), and % body fat. Drinking two or more times alcohol per week was associated with greater aBMD of the TH (p = 0.04–0.002) and FN (p = 0.043) compared to a lower frequency of alcohol consumption and 2–4 times per month, respectively. Based on the drinking amount per occasion, there were no significant group differences (p > 0.05) in aBMD at any of the sites. The highest group of total BPAQ had greater aBMD of the TH, FN, and FT versus the lowest (p = 0.023–0.009) and mid of total BPAQ groups (p = 0.004–0.009). Additionally, the highest group had greater aBMD of the lumbar spine compared to the mid group (p = 0.001). No significant group differences in aBMD at any of the sites were noted based on the BMI (p > 0.05). Young college-aged women with greater bone-loading physical activity showed greater aBMD at the TH, FN, FT, and lumbar spine, while a moderate alcohol intake was associated with greater aBMD of the TH and FN. These findings have clinical implications for young women who may not participate in high-impact physical activity and are binge drinkers.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License and published by MDPI.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.