In this work, we present a grazing incidence X-ray diffraction study of the surface of a 0.24Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT)  poled rhombohedral single crystal. The near surface microstructure (the top several tens to hundreds of unit cells) was measured in situ under an applied electric field. The strains calculated from the change in lattice parameters have been compared to the macroscopic strain measured with a strain gauge affixed to the sample surface. The depth dependence of the electrostrain at the crystal surface was investigated as a function of temperature. The analysis revealed hidden sweet spots featuring unusually high strains that were observed as a function of depth, temperature and orientation of the lattice planes.
Cain, Markys G.; Staruch, Margo; Thompson, Paul; Lucas, Christopher; Wermeille, Didier; Kayser, Yves; Beckhoff, Burkhard; Lofland, Sam E.; Finkel, Peter. (2020). "In Situ Electric-Field Study of Surface Effects in Domain Engineered Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 Relaxor Crystals by Grazing Incidence Diffraction" Crystals 10, no. 9: 728. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10090728
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