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International Journal of Molecular Sciences




Recent advances in biomedical research, particularly in optical applications, have sparked a transformative movement towards replacing synthetic polymers with more biocompatible and sustainable alternatives. Most often made from plastics or glass, these materials ignite immune responses from the body, and their production is based on environmentally harsh oil-based processes. Biopolymers, including both polysaccharides and proteins, have emerged as a potential candidate for optical biomaterials due to their inherent biocompatibility, biodegradability, and sustainability, derived from their existence in nature and being recognized by the immune system. Current extraction and fabrication methods for these biomaterials, including thermal drawing, extrusion and printing, mold casting, dry-jet wet spinning, hydrogel formations, and nanoparticles, aim to create optical materials in cost-effective and environmentally friendly manners for a wide range of applications. Present and future applications include optical waveguides and sensors, imaging and diagnostics, optical fibers, and waveguides, as well as ocular implants using biopolymers, which will revolutionize these fields, specifically their uses in the healthcare industry.


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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.