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Ultrasonics Sonochemistry




Ultrasound utilizes a non-radiation technology that can meet modern standards to gain access to cheap, reliable and sustainable modern energy. Ultrasound technology can be implemented in the field of biomaterials for its exceptional potential in controlling the shape of nanomaterials. This study presents the first example of the production of soy and silk fibroin protein composite nanofibers in various ratios via combining ultrasonic technology with air-spray spinning. Characterization of ultrasonic spun nanofibers was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, water contact angle, water retention, enzymatic degradation, and cytotoxicity assays. The effects that adjustments on the ultrasonic time have on the surface morphology, structures, thermal properties, hydrophilicity, water-uptake, bio-enzyme degradability, mechanical properties, and cytocompatibility of the material were examined. It was discovered that as the sonication time increased from 0 to 180 min, the beading phenomenon disappeared, forming nanofibers with uniform diameter and porosity; while the content of β-sheet crystals in the composites and their thermal stability gradually increased, the materials glass transition temperature decreased, and preferred mechanical properties were obtained. Additional studies show that the hydrophilicity, water retention capacity and enzymatic degradation rate were also enhanced by ultrasound, providing a favorable environment for cell attachment and proliferation. This study highlights the experimental and theoretical methods for ultrasound assisted air-jet spinning of biopolymer nanofibrous materials with tunable properties and high biocompatibility, which provide a wide range of applications in wound dressings and drug-carrying systems. This work shows great potential for a direct road to sustainable development of protein based fibers in the industry, thus promoting economic growth, and improving the health of the general population and well-being of wounded patients worldwide.


© 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.