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This work was aimed at the development of a sensitive electrochemical detection method for oxycodone in water. Molecularly imprinted electrodes were formed by electro-polymerization process using o-phenylenediamine as a monomer. The electro-polymerization was performed on glassy carbon electrodes in the presence of oxycodone before the extraction of entrapped oxycodone molecules. Various electrochemical techniques were employed to monitor the polymerization and response of the fabricated electrodes toward oxycodone. These techniques included cyclic voltammetry (CV), square wave voltammetry (SWV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The oxycodone concentration was determined using SWV by measuring the change in the oxidation peak current of [Fe(CN)6]3−/4− in a 0.1 mM acetate buffer solution. At the optimal electro-polymerization conditions, a calibration curve of the current versus the concentration of oxycodone indicated a linear response at a region from 0.4 nM to 5.0 nM with a detection limit of 1.8 ± 0.239 nM. The MIP-modified electrode’s binding isotherm was fitted using a Langmuir model and showed an association constant, KA, of 1.12 × 106, indicating a high affinity of oxycodone molecules to binding sites. This sensor has the potential to act as an alternative method suitable for the on-site analysis of oxycodone. © 2023 by the authors.


© 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.