Date Approved


Embargo Period


Document Type


Degree Name

M.A. in Special Education


Interdisciplinary and Inclusive Education


College of Education


Xin, Joy


Attention-deficit-disordered children--Behavior modification


Special Education and Teaching


The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of self-management strategies together with positive reinforcement to reduce the off-task behavior of children with ADHD. Three first and second grade students with ADHD and classified with a disability attending an elementary school participated in the study. Students were taught to self-monitor their behaviors in their special education classroom. They were trained to record their behaviors by completing a self-management form that consisted of 7 items at the end of each school day. Three off-task behaviors: out-of-seat, calling out and interrupting instruction were observed. The decrease of the student target behaviors was positively reinforced. An A-B-A-B withdrawal design was used in the study. Behavior occurrences were recorded using a checklist during baseline and intervention phases. The repeated application and withdrawal of the intervention made it possible to determine the change of the behaviors being measured. The results indicate a positive decrease of all children's behaviors of out-of-seat and interrupting instruction, however, the calling out behavior was not reduced. The findings provide support to previous research to suggest a cognitive-behavioral approach to meet the needs of students with ADHD and add data and implication for future research to further enhance the effectiveness of self-management for students with ADHD.