Date Approved


Embargo Period


Document Type


Degree Name

M.A. School Psychology




College of Science & Mathematics


Dihoff, Roberta


Bullying, Gender Differences, Perceptions of Bullying


Bullying in schools; Sex differences


Educational Psychology | Student Counseling and Personnel Services


Bullying is a prevalent and ongoing problem in all schools from elementary school on through college. Previous research has shown that rates of bullying have been on the rise in recent years. High rates of bullying should not be ignored as involvement in bullying can lead to long-lasting, negative effects. To decrease or prevent bullying, anti-bullying methods should consider all potential factors. An important factor in bullying research is the influence of gender on one’s overall bullying experience. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether or not there is a difference in the bullying rates and styles used between males and females. Additionally, this study hoped to explore whether there are differences in how participants perceive bullying as a result of their gender. A self-report questionnaire was used to collect data from 152 undergraduate males and females about their high school experiences. Results indicated that participants witnessed males exhibiting more direct/overt aggression when bullying and females using more indirect/relational aggression as expected. Analyses also revealed that there were gender differences in the participants’ perceptions of bullying in some areas. Overall, understanding gender differences within bullying will assist in the effort to create effective anti-bullying interventions to be used within schools.