Date Approved


Embargo Period


Document Type


Degree Name

M.A. in Learning Disabilities


Interdisciplinary and Inclusive Education


College of Education


Urban, Stanley


English language--Composition and exercises--Study and teaching (Elementary); Fourth grade (Education); Third grade (Education)


Disability and Equity in Education


Writing instruction has undergone many changes throughout the years. In the 1970's, instruction involved repetitive grammar drills. During the 1980's, instruction moved completely away from these drills and instead focused on creative writing. Currently, writing instruction seems to incorporate both philosophies, often times, through implementation of the writing process.

This study was designed to accomplish three purposes: first to clearly delineate and describe each stage of the process, second, to provide procedural suggestions for its implementation, and third, to document the effectiveness of such an approach on student writing.

The subjects of this study were 42 third and fourth grade students. The participating teachers were given training in the writing process and were provided with materials to aid in the implementation of each stage. Instruction was then provided on a daily basis and included direct instruction, scaffolded application, and independent writing.

The effectiveness of this program was documented through analysis of student attitude surveys and teacher observation checklists. In addition, student performance was evaluated through the use of the New Jersey Holistic Scoring Rubric. Students were given both pre and post assessments. All assessments indicated that student performance improved through the use of writing process instruction.