Date Approved


Embargo Period


Document Type


Degree Name

M.A. in Elementary Administration


Educational Services and Leadership


College of Education

First Advisor

Sernak, Kathleen


Poor children--Education; School day; Tutors and tutoring


Elementary and Middle and Secondary Education Administration


This study determines whether students from low socio-economic backgrounds, who function poorly on tests and report cards, improved academically after increasing time for instruction, and time for working on school related tasks. Research indicates that there is a relationship between time and learning. When distinctions have been made with time allocated for instruction, time engaged in instructional activities and time spent successfully completing instructional activities, the latter of these has been found to have a direct correlation with achievement. Participants worked after school on homework with certified teachers. Factors affecting student achievement in language arts have been identified. The academic outcomes of the participants are compared to other high-risk students of similar backgrounds who are not involved in the program. The educational background of the adult participants is key to understanding student motivation and commitment to working on tasks. Language arts learning objectives are measured through pre and post testing on a National Standardized Achievement Test.