Date Approved


Embargo Period


Document Type


Degree Name

M.A. in Subject Matter Teaching: Art


Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Math Education


College of Education


Levinowitz, Lili


Photography--Study and teaching (Higher)


Art Education


The purpose of this study was to learn about teaching methods and their effects on achievement and skill. The problem was to investigate the effects of both active learning and direct instruction (lecture/demonstration) on students' ability to produce a continuous tone, ten step gray scale, black and white photographic print.

The researcher arranged for a college instructor of photography to teach two intact classes of General Photography using the two instructional methods. The objectives for both classes were the same. Each student in both groups completed eight photographic assignments. After twelve (12) weeks of instruction and studio/lab work, each student in both groups was then asked to produce one criterion print. Those prints were rated by two photography experts using a five point Likert scale. Each photograph was evaluated by both judges and each print was assigned a score from one to five for range of tone.

The data were organized into a one dimensional design for differences. A t-test for independent samples was used to determine the mean difference between experimental and control groups.

There was no statistically significant difference found for type of instruction.

Included in

Art Education Commons