Date Approved


Embargo Period


Document Type


Degree Name

M.A. in School Administration


Educational Services and Leadership


College of Education


Johnson, Theodore


Academic achievement; Music--Instruction and study


Elementary and Middle and Secondary Education Administration


The purpose of this study was to determine whether a quantitative relationship existed between academic achievement as measured by California Achievement Test scores and the involvement of high school students in the developmental study of vocal and instrumental music.

The California Achievement Test Level 20 (CAT-5) scores of a cohort of 170 students were evaluated from grades nine and ten. Students were grouped according to whether they were involved in developmental vocal music, instrumental music, vocal and instrumental music programs, or no music study.

Reading, Language, and Mathematics scores for students in music programs were compared to non-music students using the t - Test analysis to assess statistically significant differences. The p < 0.05 level was chosen as the standard for statistical significance.

Results indicated that students involved in developmental music study had marginally higher scores in grade nine and substantially higher scores in grade ten and that instrumental music study had the most profound positive influence upon these scores.