Date Approved


Embargo Period


Document Type


Degree Name

M.A. in Learning Disabilities


Interdisciplinary and Inclusive Education


College of Education


Urban, Stanley


Mathematics--Study and teaching (Primary); Second grade (Education)


Disability and Equity in Education


The purpose of this study was to prove, through a systematic approach, that teaching addition facts to mastery would improve the mathematics scores of second grade students. This study attempted to demonstrate that if a desired level of automatic recall of basic facts was achieved students would show improved scores on a nationally standardized test.

Basic math facts were taught to a group of students over several months and they were tested daily on speed and accuracy. Standardized test scores were then compared from the end of first grade (prior to the intervention) and end of second grade scores (after the intervention) for each child who participated in the experimental group. This group was then compared to a group that had no intervention to see if there was a significant level of improvement, as measured by their end of first grade and end of second grade standardized test scores.

The findings to the research question were that there were no differences, statistically, in the pretest calculation abilities of the control or experimental groups, and there were no differences, statistically, in the posttest calculation abilities of the control or experimental groups. However, it can be concluded that individual students made significant gains with the extensive drill and practice. Further research with a larger group of subjects may lead to more significantly favorable findings.