Date Approved


Embargo Period


Document Type


Degree Name

M.A. in Learning Disabilities


Interdisciplinary and Inclusive Education


College of Education


Urban, Stanley


Learning disabled children--Education; Mainstreaming in education


Disability and Equity in Education


The purpose of this study was to compile a list of modifications and accommodations regular education teachers use in their classrooms to help classified students succeed in an inclusion setting. Data were collected using a questionnaire, observations, and interviews with teachers in kindergarten through grade six (with grade five omitted). Fourteen regular education teachers in two school districts, representing four elementary schools, participated in this study. Data were compiled in four areas: (1) classroom demographics; (2) teacher education; (3) specific modifications and accommodations used by teachers; and (4) specific teacher needs for future inclusion settings, Information was presented in the form of percentage of teachers using a specific strategy and a list of the modifications and accommodations used ranging in order from most used strategy to least used strategy.

Teachers participating in the study use a variety of modifications and accommodations to help classified students succeed, however, most individual teachers use a narrow range of strategies. Cooperative learning is frequently used; however, other innovative approaches, such as teaching study skills, teaching Strategies Instruction, use of peer tutoring and use of special equipment are not widely employed by regular education teachers for classified students. Additionally, little time is available for consultation with paraprofessionals and co-teachers.