Date Approved


Embargo Period


Document Type


Degree Name

M.A. in Learning Disabilities


Interdisciplinary and Inclusive Education


College of Education

First Advisor

Urban, Stanley


First grade (Education); Reading (Primary)


Disability and Equity in Education


Children enter first grade eager to read, but reading is a complex task. Some children require a remedial reading intervention to acquire the reading skills necessary to be successful. This study hypothesized that the direct individualized instruction supplied through the Reading Recovery program would help children attain higher levels of achievement than a traditional small group Basic Skills Program.

Eight children in the bottom 20% of their first grade class were divided into two groups. Four received the strategy-driven Reading Recovery intervention, and four received the skills-oriented BSI intervention, Pre and post intervention data was collected for both groups using the Clay Diagnostic Survey. This data was compared. The results indicate that though reading achievement was increased in both groups, the Reading Recovery group demonstrated the highest level of achievement especially in the areas of comprehension and vocabulary development. Their reading levels advanced significantly over the BSI students during the four month interval. This suggests that the Reading Recovery program should be implemented for the most at risk students in first grade.