Date Approved


Embargo Period


Document Type


Degree Name

M.A. in Special Education


Interdisciplinary and Inclusive Education


College of Education


Kuder, S. Jay


Children with mental disabilities--Education; Mathematics--Study and teaching (Elementary)


Special Education and Teaching


This study examined the effects of active or passive error correction procedures on the learning, generalization and maintenance of math facts by students with multiple handicaps. The hypothesis stated that students actively involved will exhibit greater success in learning their facts. Using an alternative treatment design, six students from Midway School, Lumberton, New Jersey, were introduced, taught and tested on ten flashcards each week for four weeks. Students received the correct answer from an instructor when an error was made. They in turn, either repeated the problem and answer or listened attentively to the instructor's corrected answer. Active Student Responses (ASR) was compared to No Response (NR) Error Correction by looking at each instructional period, Same-Day Test, Next-Day Test, Generalization Test and Maintenance Test for the six students. Results showed that students performed very closely between ASR and NR responses on a short-term basis but the results of learning and retaining facts over time show ASR responses to be stronger. It was also noted that individual differences in ability level and motivation among students may have also played a role in assessing the student's ability to learn the math facts. Future research should look closer at individual ability levels as well as a longer range of time to exhibit the retention of math facts.