Date Approved


Embargo Period


Document Type


Degree Name

M.A. in Elementary Education


Interdisciplinary and Inclusive Education


College of Education


Molinari, Louis


Elementary school teachers--Attitudes; Math anxiety; Mathematics--Study and teaching (Elementary)


Elementary Education and Teaching


The purpose of this thesis was to determine the effect of teachers' mathematics anxiety and their mathematics teaching confidence level on their attitudes towards manipulative use. To investigate this, a survey was developed and distributed to all of the mathematics teachers in the eight elementary schools in Atlantic City, New Jersey.

The survey was composed of fifty-five statements. These statements were rated on a five point Likert type scale. Thirteen of the statements researched mathematics anxiety in the sample teachers. Twelve of the statements investigated the confidence level of teachers as they instructed their students in the subject of mathematics. The remaining thirty statements referred to the teachers attitudes towards manipulatives and the amount of time they spent using them in their classrooms. There was a sixty-two response rate which allowed the data to be analyzed and evaluated to determine if statistically significant differences existed between the three major components of the survey.

The data from this thesis supported the need for grade level workshops on the benefits of manipulatives as well as specific planning for time allotment for their use in kindergarten through sixth grades.