Date Approved


Embargo Period


Document Type


Degree Name

M.A. in Learning Disabilities


Interdisciplinary and Inclusive Education


College of Education


Urban, Stanley


English language--Grammar--Study and teaching; Learning disabled children--Education; Seventh grade (Education)


Disability and Equity in Education


For years, research and replications of research have supported the findings that grammar taught in isolation is at best ineffective. As a result, some teachers have abandoned grammar instruction altogether. Other teachers are unaware of the findings or simply choose to ignore them. With so many mildly handicapped students being placed in regular education classes, these curricular decisions are having an impact on their success in producing correct written communication.

This study compares eleven learning disabled seventh grade students taught in the mainstream with traditional grammar instruction to nine learning disabled peers taught in a resource center with specific strategy instruction. The Test of Written Language-2 (TOWL-2) measures competence using Form A for a fall pretest and Form B for a spring posttest. A comparison of national percentile rankings by percentage of change (increase or decrease) is the basis for comparison. A self-evaluation questionnaire completed on both testing dates measures confidence.

The experimental group improved significantly on all subtests of the TOWL-2 related to revising and editing. Neither group showed any improvement in personal confidence with regard to their revising and/or editing skills.