Date Approved


Embargo Period


Document Type


Degree Name

M.A. in Elementary Education


Interdisciplinary and Inclusive Education


College of Education


Molinari, Louis


First grade (Education); School age (Entrance age)


Elementary Education and Teaching


The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not students who entered first grade at an earlier chronological age could successfully compete with late-entrance students regarding academics and self-concepts. Research suggests that there may be a link between school success and chronological age for elementary students.

A study was constructed that included 18 first grade students of the same class. The 18 students were classified as being either "Early" or "Late" entrants. Late entrants were those students who were born between October, 1987 and March, 1988. Early entrants were those students who were born between April, 1988 and September, 1988.

In order to investigate the hypotheses, two tests were administered. Scores from the April, 1994 Iowa Test of Basic Skills were compared to Spring, 1995 scores of Early and Late Entrants to measure achievement. Differences in self-concept were compared using the students' Behavior Rating Profile-Second Edition (1990). The degree of popularity among the 18 students was measured by using the Sociogram, "My Three Friends." Using a two-tailed t test, the differences between mean scores were compared. Differences were considered significant at the .05 level of confidence.

When the data was analyzed, it was found that statistically there were no significant differences between Early and Late Entrants in terms of achievement and self concept; however, trends were noted.