Date Approved


Embargo Period


Document Type


Degree Name

MA Learning Disabilities


Interdisciplinary and Inclusive Education


College of Education

First Advisor

Kuder, S. Jay

Second Advisor

Paparo, Nanci


Intervention and Referral Services, Pre-referral Interventions


Learning disabled children--Identification


Special Education and Teaching


New Jersey schools are mandated to establish and implement a coordinated system to serve the general education population in order to improve student achievement. This system, known as I&RS (Intervention and Referral Services), is designed to implement pre-referral interventions for at-risk students through a collaborative problem-solving process, which takes place between school administration and staff. A pre-referral intervention web page, containing an overview of the I&RS process, as well as various forms and resources, was created and linked to a school's website for convenience and easy access. Thirty-two teachers at an urban school district in a low socioeconomic community in Camden, NJ were introduced to the I&RS web page and surveyed about their perceptions of the I&RS process.

The data from this study illustrated that the teachers who participated in this survey reported an increase in their understanding of the I&RS process. The data also reflected that teachers view the I&RS process as an effective means of addressing the needs of their struggling students. Additionally, the teachers reported that they would like to receive additional training on the I&RS process. Finally, teacher feedback emphasized the need for direct instruction pertaining to the I&RS process and continued collaboration between I&RS team members in order to create effective intervention plans for general education students who may be at-risk for failure.