Date Approved


Embargo Period


Document Type


Degree Name

MA Learning Disabilities


Interdisciplinary and Inclusive Education


College of Education


Kuder, S. Jay

Committee Member 1

Paparo, Nanci


Intervention and Referral Services, Pre-referral Interventions


Learning disabled children--Identification


Special Education and Teaching


New Jersey schools are mandated to establish and implement a coordinated system to serve the general education population in order to improve student achievement. This system, known as I&RS (Intervention and Referral Services), is designed to implement pre-referral interventions for at-risk students through a collaborative problem-solving process, which takes place between school administration and staff. A pre-referral intervention web page, containing an overview of the I&RS process, as well as various forms and resources, was created and linked to a school's website for convenience and easy access. Thirty-two teachers at an urban school district in a low socioeconomic community in Camden, NJ were introduced to the I&RS web page and surveyed about their perceptions of the I&RS process.

The data from this study illustrated that the teachers who participated in this survey reported an increase in their understanding of the I&RS process. The data also reflected that teachers view the I&RS process as an effective means of addressing the needs of their struggling students. Additionally, the teachers reported that they would like to receive additional training on the I&RS process. Finally, teacher feedback emphasized the need for direct instruction pertaining to the I&RS process and continued collaboration between I&RS team members in order to create effective intervention plans for general education students who may be at-risk for failure.