Date Approved


Embargo Period


Document Type


Degree Name

MA Special Education


Interdisciplinary and Inclusive Education


College of Education


Kuder, Sydney Jay

Committee Member 1

Accardo, Amy

Committee Member 2

Shuff, Midge


basic facts, division, flashcards, mathematics, multiplication, special education


Computer-assisted instruction; Arithmetic


Science and Mathematics Education | Special Education and Teaching


This study utilized a time series design to investigate the effects of a computer-based math fact program called vs. the use of traditional handheld flashcards. Students were given a baseline assessment before beginning the school district's method for learning basic math facts: They were tested again after 6 weeks and then began to use traditional handheld flashcards. Students were tested again to compare the results. Eight 4th grade students (5 male and 3 female) with special needs were included in this study. These students attend school in a wealthy, suburban area with a predominantly white population.

Fluency in basic math facts is a critical skill in furthering mathematical skills from elementary school through college. Without this important skill, students are certain to have difficulties throughout their schooling career and beyond. Some researchers have shown that technology-based programs are benefiting the growth of math skills, but has technology actually done away with an important factor in learning basic multiplication and division facts? The results showed that while both methods of acquiring math fact fluency were beneficial, there was a substantially greater increase with the use of the flashcards. The online program helped, but students were more successful with the flashcards.