Date Approved


Embargo Period


Document Type


Degree Name

M.A. in School Psychology


Educational Services and Leadership


College of Education


Klanderman, John


Context effects (Psychology); Memory--Testing


Educational Psychology


Although there are many studies on Context Dependent Memory (CDM), few studies have investigated CDM and relaxing environments. A recent British study by Cassaday, Bloomfield, and Hayward (2002) examined context dependent memory, relaxing conditions, and college student performance. The current study is a replication of the Cassaday, Bloomfield, and Hayward (2002) study. Participants in this experiment were 28 college students from a state university. The current study was a 2 x 2 between-subjects design with two independent variables: learning context and testing context. For all learning conditions participants completed a free recall task and a problem-solving task called the Tower of Hanoi. For all testing conditions participants completed a free recall task, a cued recall task, and a problem-solving task called the Tower of Hanoi. For the relaxing condition, the experimenter manipulated three aspects of the environment: odor, music, and instruction. The dependent variable for each task was the number of errors made. A 2 x 2 x 3 mixed (split plot) analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the data. Context dependent memory was not found for any of the three tasks. However, participant performance was affected by task type.