Publication Date

October 2020



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The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent literature focusing on intravenous (IV) administration of commonly used anesthetics, including midazolam, pentobarbital/ thiopental, propofol, and ketamine in the treatment of status epilepticus (SE). Anesthetics should be reserved as third-line therapy for the treatment of SE when benzodiazepines and other second-line agents fail to terminate the seizure. We have reviewed the literature related to the treatment of status epilepticus, refractory status epilepticus, super-refractory status epilepticus, anesthetics, midazolam, pentobarbital/thiopental, propofol, and ketamine. This paper focuses on the pharmacology, dosages, major side effects, and clinical use of IV anesthetics in the treatment of SE with an emphasis on the developing literature supporting the use of ketamine for this indication. Based on the available literature, we propose recommendations for third-line agent selection in the management of SE.

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.



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