Date Approved


Embargo Period


Document Type


Degree Name

M.A. Reading Education


Language, Literacy, and Sociocultural Education


College of Education

First Advisor

Madden, Marjorie

Second Advisor

Lee, Valarie

Third Advisor

Browne, Susan


Reading--Phonetic method; Learning disabled children--Education


Language and Literacy Education | Special Education and Teaching


The purpose of this study was to examine how third grade special education students' reading abilities were affected after receiving direct instruction in phoneme segmentation and blending. During the study students spent an average of two weeks practicing segmenting phonemes and another two weeks blending phonemes utilizing various activities. The last weeks of the study focused on applying the skills into actual reading situations. The study showed benefits in various areas including the utilization of manipulatives in relation to phonemes. Students were also positively impacted directly after receiving the direction instruction and practice activities, as there was an increase in abilities after each section of instruction. When asked to utilize all skills together, students often needed teacher prompting to enact those skills in context. Overall, the study was looking at how well older students benefited from direct instruction in foundational skills. The results found there to be benefits even to older students.