Joan Hackl

Date Approved


Embargo Period


Document Type


Degree Name

M.A. Learning Disabilities


Language, Literacy, and Special Education


College of Education

First Advisor

Kuder, S Jay


Arithmetic--Study and teaching


Elementary Education and Teaching | Special Education and Teaching


The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of self-graphing and an effort and achievement rubric on increasing students' multiplication fact accuracy and fluency. The research design was a two-group pretest/posttest research design. Data was collected from student multiplication math fact quizzes. Students were given the same math fact quiz for a month before a new set of facts was introduced the next month. For each month, the first quiz of the month served as baseline data as no interventions were introduced for those quizzes. The second month of quizzes served as the self-graphing alone data, and the last three months served as the self-graphing and effort and achievement rubric data. Students were separated into a group of five low achievers and five high achievers and data was grouped according to grades on the quizzes, the time it took to finish the quizzes, and digits correct per minute. All data was analyzed by finding the mean of the quizzes to eliminate practice-effects of taking the same quiz for a whole month. The results of the study showed that the use of self-graphing alone was most beneficial for increasing math fact accuracy and fluency. This suggests that students should graph their math fact achievement from week to week, but that the addition of an effort and achievement rubric might best be introduced with a different task.